Paul Wayland Bartlett:
"Female Torso", 1895


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Museum Replica | Bronze | Hand Patinated | Height 40 cm

Paul Wayland Bartlett: "Female Torso", 1895

Original: stone, bronze, Musée d'Orsay, Paris. Lost wax casting, bronze, patinated by hand, 40 cm (h).

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The American Paul Wayland moved to Paris at the age of 9 where he studied in the École des Beaux-Arts (the School of Fine Arts) where he studied under the influence of Emmanuel Frémiet and Pierre Cavelier. Here he also met August Rodin. Later he worked in his studio and was strongly influenced by him. At the age of 15 he was allowed to exhibit a bust in the Paris salon, up to 22 he got a medal of honor and at 24 he became a member of the Salon jury himself.

Among his most famous works one can find such monumental works as the rider statue of Lafayette on the Place du Carrousel in Paris as well as the expressive statues of Columbus and Michelangelo in the Congress Library in Washington D.C. Bartlett spent most of his life in Paris, where he died in 1925.

An alloy of copper with other metals (especially with tin) used since ancient times.

Bronze casting:

When casting bronze, artist usually applies the lost-wax technique which is dating back more than 5000 years. It's the best, but also the most complex method of producing sculptures.

Sculpture "The Book Reader" by Ernst Barlachs is shown here as an example:

Ernst Barlach: Sculpture 'The book reader'

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 1

First, the artist forms a model of his sculpture. It is embedded in a liquid silicone rubber composition. Once the material has solidified, the model is cut out. The liquid wax is poured in the negative mould. After cooling down, the wax casting is removed from the mould, provided with sprues and dipped into ceramic mass. The ceramic mass is hardened in a kiln, and the wax flows out (lost mould).

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 2Now we finally have the negative form, into which the 1400 ° C hot molten bronze is poured. After the bronze had cooled down, the ceramic shell is broken off and the sculpture comes to light.

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 3Now the sprues are removed, the surfaces are polished, patinated and numbered by the artist himself or, to his specifications, by a specialist. Thus, each casting becomes an original work

For lower-grade bronze castings, the sand casting method is often used which, however, does not achieve the results of more complex lost wax technique in terms of surface characteristics and quality.

Related links:
Sand casting

The mold is usually taken directly from the original, so that the replica reproduces even the finest details. After casting the replica, using the most appropriate method, the surface is polished, patinated, gilded or painted according to the original.

A replica of ars mundi is a recognizable image of the original.

A plastic work of sculptural art made of wood, stone, ivory, bronze or other metals.

While sculptures from wood, ivory or stone are made directly from the block of material, for bronze casting a working model is prepared at first. Usually it is made of clay or other easily shaped materials.

The prime time of sculpture after the Roman antiquity was the Renaissance. Impressionism gave a new impulse to the sculptural arts. Also the contemporary artists, such as Jorg Immendorf, Andora, and Markus Lupertz enriched the sculpture with outstanding works.


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