Cat figurine of the goddess Bastet, bronze


Cat figurine of the goddess Bastet, bronze


$ 567,35 (498,00 EUR)

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Order-nr. IN-011880
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Replica | Bronze + stone | Height 16 cm

Cat figurine of the goddess Bastet, bronze

The goddess Bastet, which mostly has a form of an animal, here is presented as a crouching cat. The countless bronze images prove the popularity of her cult in the late period. Depending on the size, the functions of the individual figures could vary: it was worn as an amulet, donated by temple visitors in honor of the goddess, or the inside of the sculpture was used for containing a mummified cat body. The main cult place of Bastet was Bubastis in the eastern Delta. Although the shrine today is a ruin, the Greek historian Herodotus gives us a vivid picture of the feasts and cult festivities held in the city of Bastet._x000D_

Original: Musée du Louvre, Paris. Egypt, Late Period, 26th Dynasty, around 600 BC._x000D_


Bronze casting, finely patinated by hand, height with the plinth 14 cm.

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Early Dynastic Period and Old Kingdom (3000 - 2160 B.C.)
Even in the early days, around 3000 B.C., the Egyptian art found its own style. Rules for the representation, that had existed for 3000 years, were set. Text and picture formed a single unit. The beginning of the Old Kingdom, around 2600 B.C., is marked by the emergence of the Step Pyramid of Djoser in Saqqara, the first king's grave in the shape of a pyramid that was 545 x 280 meter tall and built entirely in stone. Relief and painting at that time served almost exclusivelyto to the survival of people in the afterlife.

Intermediate Period and Middle Kingdom (2155 – 1650 B.C.)
New art that resulted from the Old Kingdom art, that was rich in cultural highlights, arose after the reunification of the country under the rule of King Mentuhotep I in about 2040 B.C. The art of this period reached its peak through the portraits of the late Twelfth-Dynasty Kings Sesostris II and Amenemhet III. During the 13th dynasty and the subsequent domination by Asian invaders (Hyksos Period), the monumental art declined. Small sculptures such as hippos and glazed animal figures made of fired clay represented the hope for regeneration in the afterlife. The preferred burial gift was the scarab, often decorated with the name of the deceased, whose life after death it was intended to secure.

New Kingdom (1550 – 1070 B.C.)
The expulsion of "Hyksos"' was followed by a renewal of the spiritual life and the visual arts. The Temple of Amun in Karnak and impressive Avenue of the Sphinxes were built. Together with the Hatshepsut's Temple Terrace began the construction of a series of royal mortuary temples on the west bank of the Nile at Thebes. From the beginning of the Amarna Period and the reign of Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV) the colossal statues returned to more "human" measures. The king was no longer represented in his sublime divinity, but in his family circle with the symbol of sun rays. After the discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamun and the treasures it contained, we gained a deep insight into the art, culture and everyday life of an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty.
Under the reigns of kings Seti I and Ramses II, with its Great Hypostyle Hall of Karnak, The Abu Simbel rock temple and others, Egypt experienced such construction activity that allowed no further increase. In sculpture, the stone was replaced by metal. Large bronze sculptures of the 22nd Dynasty finally segued to fullness of the gods and animal sculptures of the Late Period.

Late Period (712 – 332 B.C.)
During the Late Period of ancient Egyptian history, there was the tendency to imitate older works of art so it is difficult today to distinguish between an original of e.g. the Middle Kingdom and later "repetition" of the work. The way back to the origins was sought in the multispace tombs that emerged during the 26th Dynasty in Thebes. Here, all major religious scriptures of the past has been passed down to posterity.

Graeco-Roman Period (332 B.C. – 395  A.D.)
When in 332 B.C. Alexander the Great managed to expel the Persians from Egypt, he was celebrated as a liberator and was crowned as pharaoh in Memphis. After Alexander's death in 323 B.C., the empire started to collapse because of continuous succession disputes until finally Alexander's general Ptolemy took dominion over Egypt in 305 and founded the dynasty that had remained in power for 300 years.
After the assassination of Ptolemy XIII in 48-47 B.C., his sister Cleopatra VII took over as sole ruler. The Roman general Julius Caesar, who had tried in vain to mediate between Cleopatra and her brother, finally got himself into trouble and was forced to burn the Egyptian fleet, which was anchored in Alexandria. Cleopatra gave birth to Caesar's son and tried to secure his claim to the throne. After Caesar's death, she aligned with Mark Antony, whose victories brought Egypt control over the Middle East for the last time. The clashes with Octavian, the future emperor Augustus, ended with a defeat for Mark Antony in 31 A.D. He went back to Cleopatra and they both committed suicide. Thus Egypt became a province of Rome.

An alloy of copper with other metals (especially with tin) used since ancient times.

Bronze casting:

When casting bronze, artist usually applies the lost-wax technique which is dating back more than 5000 years. It's the best, but also the most complex method of producing sculptures.

Sculpture "The Book Reader" by Ernst Barlachs is shown here as an example:

Ernst Barlach: Sculpture 'The book reader'

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 1

First, the artist forms a model of his sculpture. It is embedded in a liquid silicone rubber composition. Once the material has solidified, the model is cut out. The liquid wax is poured in the negative mould. After cooling down, the wax casting is removed from the mould, provided with sprues and dipped into ceramic mass. The ceramic mass is hardened in a kiln, and the wax flows out (lost mould).

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 2Now we finally have the negative form, into which the 1400 ° C hot molten bronze is poured. After the bronze had cooled down, the ceramic shell is broken off and the sculpture comes to light.

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 3Now the sprues are removed, the surfaces are polished, patinated and numbered by the artist himself or, to his specifications, by a specialist. Thus, each casting becomes an original work

For lower-grade bronze castings, the sand casting method is often used which, however, does not achieve the results of more complex lost wax technique in terms of surface characteristics and quality.

Related links:
Sand casting

A plastic work of sculptural art made of wood, stone, ivory, bronze or other metals.

While sculptures from wood, ivory or stone are made directly from the block of material, for bronze casting a working model is prepared at first. Usually it is made of clay or other easily shaped materials.

The prime time of sculpture after the Roman antiquity was the Renaissance. Impressionism gave a new impulse to the sculptural arts. Also the contemporary artists, such as Jorg Immendorf, Andora, and Markus Lupertz enriched the sculpture with outstanding works.

The mold is usually taken directly from the original, so that the replica reproduces even the finest details. After casting the replica, using the most appropriate method, the surface is polished, patinated, gilded or painted according to the original.

A replica of ars mundi is a recognizable image of the original.