Horse head lamp

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Replica | Ceramics | Height 13 cm | Length 18 cm

http://www.arsmundi.com/

Horse head lamp

The cult of the God of sun Mithra was celebrated in night-dark cliff grottos with the light of such lamps. The pirates brought the cult subjects to Europe. Roman legionnaires brought it to Germania and Britain. Original: Berlin State Museums, Collection of Classical Antiquities. Roman 1st century. N. BC., Ceramics. Height 13 cm, length 18 cm.

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The Roman art is primarily determined by the fusion of Italian and Greek Hellenistic elements.

The pragmatic and political aspects serving to expand the empire were influential in architecture.

In religious sphere the early temples of Rome followed the Etrurian-Italic type. The Roman secular buildings, such as bridges, ports, aqueducts, walls, gates, etc. played far more important role.

With the transformation of the Roman Forum by Augustus and the redesign of the Forum of Augustus the significance of the old city centers changed. They became large closed outdoor spaces. Axial symmetry, oriented to a podium temple is characteristic of the time. The temples and theaters that were built in the "eternal city" under the reign of Emperor Augustus with their round dynamic designs diverged considerably from the straight-lined Greek models.

The copies and transformation of Greek models primarily predominate among the round, three-dimensional works of the Roman period. Independent achievements of Roman sculptors arose in the field of portraits, whereby in Rome, the form of the bust was preferred. A preference for ornamentation without neglecting the substantive content is shown in the relief art.

Triumphal paintings that were carried in processions to honor glorious commanders were typical for the painting. Such excavated cities of Vesuvius as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae and Oplontis provide the richest overview of mural painting.

A parallel to the painting is the art of mosaic which was mainly used for the decorative design of floors and walls.

Some areas of minor arts flourished exceedingly in Roman times. Toreutics, the art of working metal, brought forth precious silver vessels. The glassblowing art is documented by numerous excellent finds. In glyptik, (the art of carving on precious stones) there are magnificent reliefs carved from semi-precious stones, engraved gems and cameos depicting official themes.

The extensive coinage in Roman times contributed to spreading the portraits of the rulers over the entire territory of the Roman Empire.

Ceramic product made from kaolin, quartz and feldspar.

Porcelain is formed by turning or pressing. Figural representations are cast. Complex molds have to be cast in sections and then "applied". After molding, the pieces are dried and "burnt" at about 900 °C. After that, the glaze is applied and fired at temperatures between 1,240 °C and 1,445 °C. In major manufactures, the porcelain is painted by hand with each color separately and has to be burned in compliance with narrow temperature tolerances.

The porcelain was invented in China and became widespread in Europe in the 16th century. The first European porcelain factory was founded in Meissen in 1710.

Other famous European porcelain factories are Fürstenberg, Höchst, Schwarzburger Werkstätten, Lladró, Nymphenburg, KPM, Augarten, Sèvres, Limoges, Royal Copenhagen, Worcester. Individual factories label their products with the porcelain brands that serve to identify their origin.

Related links:
Schwarzburg Workshops of the Porcelain Art
Lladró

The mold is usually taken directly from the original, so that the replica reproduces even the finest details. After casting the replica, using the most appropriate method, the surface is polished, patinated, gilded or painted according to the original.

A replica of ars mundi is a recognizable image of the original.

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