Ephebe with Victory Towel

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Order-nr. IN-002985
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Bronze | Patinated | Height 33 cm

http://www.arsmundi.com/

Ephebe with Victory Towel

Original: around the birth of Christ, Staatliche Antikensammlungen und Glyptothek, Munich. Lost wax casting, bronze, with fine patina, 33 cm (h - incl. base).

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The Roman art is primarily determined by the fusion of Italian and Greek Hellenistic elements.

The pragmatic and political aspects serving to expand the empire were influential in architecture.

In religious sphere the early temples of Rome followed the Etrurian-Italic type. The Roman secular buildings, such as bridges, ports, aqueducts, walls, gates, etc. played far more important role.

With the transformation of the Roman Forum by Augustus and the redesign of the Forum of Augustus the significance of the old city centers changed. They became large closed outdoor spaces. Axial symmetry, oriented to a podium temple is characteristic of the time. The temples and theaters that were built in the "eternal city" under the reign of Emperor Augustus with their round dynamic designs diverged considerably from the straight-lined Greek models.

The copies and transformation of Greek models primarily predominate among the round, three-dimensional works of the Roman period. Independent achievements of Roman sculptors arose in the field of portraits, whereby in Rome, the form of the bust was preferred. A preference for ornamentation without neglecting the substantive content is shown in the relief art.

Triumphal paintings that were carried in processions to honor glorious commanders were typical for the painting. Such excavated cities of Vesuvius as Pompeii, Herculaneum, Stabiae and Oplontis provide the richest overview of mural painting.

A parallel to the painting is the art of mosaic which was mainly used for the decorative design of floors and walls.

Some areas of minor arts flourished exceedingly in Roman times. Toreutics, the art of working metal, brought forth precious silver vessels. The glassblowing art is documented by numerous excellent finds. In glyptik, (the art of carving on precious stones) there are magnificent reliefs carved from semi-precious stones, engraved gems and cameos depicting official themes.

The extensive coinage in Roman times contributed to spreading the portraits of the rulers over the entire territory of the Roman Empire.

Sculptural representation of person's head and shoulders.

An alloy of copper with other metals (especially with tin) used since ancient times.

Bronze casting:

When casting bronze, artist usually applies the lost-wax technique which is dating back more than 5000 years. It's the best, but also the most complex method of producing sculptures.

Sculpture "The Book Reader" by Ernst Barlachs is shown here as an example:

Ernst Barlach: Sculpture 'The book reader'

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 1

First, the artist forms a model of his sculpture. It is embedded in a liquid silicone rubber composition. Once the material has solidified, the model is cut out. The liquid wax is poured in the negative mould. After cooling down, the wax casting is removed from the mould, provided with sprues and dipped into ceramic mass. The ceramic mass is hardened in a kiln, and the wax flows out (lost mould).

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 2Now we finally have the negative form, into which the 1400 ° C hot molten bronze is poured. After the bronze had cooled down, the ceramic shell is broken off and the sculpture comes to light.

Ernst Barlach 'The Book Reader' - Lost Wax Casting Technique Part 3Now the sprues are removed, the surfaces are polished, patinated and numbered by the artist himself or, to his specifications, by a specialist. Thus, each casting becomes an original work

For lower-grade bronze castings, the sand casting method is often used which, however, does not achieve the results of more complex lost wax technique in terms of surface characteristics and quality.

Related links:
Sand casting

The mold is usually taken directly from the original, so that the replica reproduces even the finest details. After casting the replica, using the most appropriate method, the surface is polished, patinated, gilded or painted according to the original.

A replica of ars mundi is a recognizable image of the original.

A plastic work of sculptural art made of wood, stone, ivory, bronze or other metals.

While sculptures from wood, ivory or stone are made directly from the block of material, for bronze casting a working model is prepared at first. Usually it is made of clay or other easily shaped materials.

The prime time of sculpture after the Roman antiquity was the Renaissance. Impressionism gave a new impulse to the sculptural arts. Also the contemporary artists, such as Jorg Immendorf, Andora, and Markus Lupertz enriched the sculpture with outstanding works.

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